Foreign Policy Analysis
The main factors affecting the FP goals. So it is possible to defined FP goals (immıçs) (20) on relations with the other actors. Actually FP goals, targets defined by goverments or desion-makers in accordance with the future conditions.
Actually they formulated the FP goals for future under today’s condition. We are going to focus on the link between the foreign policy analyses and FP goals
How can we formulate the FP goals, FP aims.
We are going to make some categorization about the FP goals and targets. Actually, We define the FP as the one actor’s relation with the other. But there is a crucial aim of the FP.
States try to realize these goals (FP goals) by influencing the behaviors of the states. So the may name of the FP is to influence the behavior of other states or by changing the behavior of other states or by protecting the other states interets or the other states. (Diğer devletleri ve diğer devletlerin çıkarlarını korumak)
We define the FP as one actor’s relations with the other but there are some motivation under the definition
The main motivation of the state is to influence the other states, influence of the behavior of other states or changing the behaviors in international system.
or you can try to protect to other states. In order to realize these goals, aims with the foreign policy — States deterren? (4.26) some basic, some long term, some middle term goals. These are about the FP
Because of that we will make some subcategories under the goals. For example abstract goals,conflict goals, temporary goals. permanent goals.
We will have a look at the details of the (diternz) (5.15) of the motivation under the formulated process of the goals. For example imagine, you are a state or you are a decision maker of a state. And you will determine goal, you will formulate the FP your country. You have some priorities. You have some motivations. For example economical development is a one of the main motivations. Or protection your land, protection your border asetra. We will look at these motivations. The first subcategorizations, jeopolitical goals and the temporary targets. The targets can usually be jeopolitical base. Jeopolitical targets are the permanent targets. Jeopolitical targets do not change for a long term. Besides that some targets can be temporary goals.
Another subcategorization is about the impact area. The other subcategorization is about the impact area of the FP goals. It means some targets affect all component of the state. For instance, defending againist nuclear weopan attact. It is an example of such a target. So a nuclear attact direct the affect the all parts of the country. Because of that the protect against nuclear attack is a general target. It is about the all compenent of the state. But some target corcern about some segment of the state. Like increasing export. İncreasing export is one of the FP targets. But it is not (velled)—(11) -for directly you or directly mean. It is about the businessman.
So state can determine some goals about the some segment of the states like the increasing export. This is the goal. This is the FP target. But this is about the some segments of the states. On the other hand, it is also possible to classify the FP goals from the abstract goals to the concrete (somut) goals.
How can we describe (tanımlama) abstract goals of states? — Bir devletin soyut hedefleri neler olabilir? -Prestige. It about the abstract values. The concrete goals can be example field as the protecting territorial integrity. This is a concrete goal. Protecting against terrorism, againist nuclear weapon attack. So there are some determinants, there are some motivations under the FPG you can as a Decision Maker, you can formulate some FPG actually you have to do that.
Why formulating FP?
You have some motivations, you have some priorities. These are the determinants. We call them as the determinants. The determinants mens the your motivatins in formulating FP actions, in formulating FP targets. FP behavior.
Now we can discuss the main motivation of a state in the formulation process.
Which concerns affect the formulating FP gols?
We understand the FPG can be categorize the from abstract to concrete, from permanent to temprory asetra. But whatever you formulate the goals. You have to take into (konstreyşıns) some motivations some determinants some factors affecting formulating process of the goals.
Which are these motivations? Which motivations affect the FPG?
Bacis needs (bir devletin de temel ihtiyaçları var),
protecting and surviving the territorial integrity. Something else. security, military, economical security, enviremental security, all security targets. After the security a states basic need. This is a economic development. or meeting the economic needs. You have to need your societies economic need. (önce açsanız başka bir olayı düşünmezsiniz önce temel ihtiyaçlar)
Changing technology can change your perception or this can affect directly your FP chooses. Changing Technology.
Bu ve benzerleri, sizin dış politika hedeflerinizi etkileyen faktörler. Teknoloji değiştiği için ben kömürle çalışan bir fabrika kuracağım diyen bir lider yoktur.
Changing values or beliefs
opinion of the society
the organizations you have participated in and the agreements you have signed
your economic capacitiy
your sociological capacity
Political needs or cultural needs
Internal political conflict
Internal political conflict or creation of external threat
the legitimacy problem of the political regime
International society can make the operations against some political regimes.
international community can make the military operations against the some political regime.
For example Iraq, Syria, Libya
Cultural needs or ideolocigal needs or demands
Cultural needs is about the abstract goals. Prestige of a state.
Affecting goals or FP targest or identity or the ideolocigal motives. All of them can be listed under the culturel needs. And directly affectly chooses of FP.
Or efforts of state to increase capacities or increase possibilities. For example creating alliences (ittifaklar kurmak) or control over strategic areas. Securing raw materials (hammaddelerin güvenliği).
Needs for new market. For example for the China.
İnternational system can limit our choices or our decisions. So there are some domestic limition factors like republic opinion, presure groups, media asetra. and we can say the our capacities as the internal limitaions. Economical capacity, leg of military capacity , asetra and we have some external limitaions. The norm, rules of the İnt. Org., the character of İnt. system, international law, agreements, organizations we joined etc.
Actually these all factors motivating factors and limitation factors directly affected the decision makers actions, DM goals, point of views. Wihtin the context its possible to define the FPG into the mainly three groups. We can classify the FPG into three groups. Basic, medium and the long term goals. Basic goals are direcly link to phsical needs of the state. Like the protection of states existence. Or protection of states territorial integrity. or sovereignty. Protection of states, political, economical and the social structure. These are the basic goals. Basic needs of the states. When we look at the medium term targets, we can mention about for subgroups. We can identify the medium terms under for subgroups. The first one is the individual needs. For ex. the increasing export. İncrease the foreing treaty value for the businessman. Theses a need of the group need for a individual.
The Seconde one, to increase prestige of a state in international system or increasing prestige of a state is again one of the medium term targets.
Replutition of the state depends on its indistrial and scientific developments.
The Third, medium term target is the expansionist aims. States may aim to occupy the territorial of neighbory countries territory. İnder to handle the security treaths comming from the external sources. Some states may wish to access the natural resources, markets and the trade rules.
Because of that they can follow the expansionist policy. But this type of policy is inclueded in the medium term goals.
The last category under the medium term goal is about the creation relations, creating alliences, supporting friendly and allied countries, the maining can be to improve human rights and the promoting in international laws, international instutions. A states for medium terms goals is about the IR, like the membership like the support the other countries like the agreements.
Why? Because you have to protect to human rights, you can improve the human rights or you can increase to promoting international laws, int. institutions.
The third category under the foreign policy goals is the long term goals. Long-term goals can be defined as the dreams, the plans or far sighted thoughts (uzun dönemli düşünceler).
Dreams of the leaders. Long terms is about the dreams, plans…
A state can one to the regulate the int. system or change the int. system.
Or a state or a decision-maker want to change its our country position in int system. But the changing in position of your country in int. system can be long terms efforts. Because of that such needs such goals can be defined as the long term goals in the FP analyses. We focus on the mention about the some factors, some limitation, some motivations or types of goals. We have three types of determining factors on FP.
The first one is the National (law)(row). I mean three key elements.
Three key elements affecting FP. First National Raw/row/law
Second one is national interest
third one is national security
when we look at the national law, we say that the states in int system can be defined as actors who act in accordance with the speacial roles.
National Role can be defined as the special roles they defined. It means a state determines some rules for itself. State traditions, national characteristics’ role is huge. Being mediatior is a national role in international system. Determining the national role is one of the main points in the countries’ Foreign Policy.
(Ulusal rolümüz aslında bizim dış politikamız. Ulusal Rolü belirlerken, ulusal karakteriniz, inançlarınız, kapasitemiz. Bunların hepsi bizim rolümüzü belirleyici faktörlerdir.)
In the analyses of FP the concept of National Interests plays a decisive role. It’s difficult to define national interest. Another factor influencing the national interest. At the same time, there is a directly relations between your capacities and your environment the character of the international system. Another factor influence in National interest is history and geography. History and geography affect the from the perceptions to the life style.
National Security Another concept influencing the national goals but it’s also defines the details of militating the foreign policy. Security is accepted as the basic need of a state. It can affect possitively the negotiating power of a state.,
National Security is the most important concept use by the decision makers. For formulating or legimating the FP understanding.
(Biz dış politikadan bahsediyorsak belli hedeflerden bahsediyoruz demektir. Bu hedefleri nasıl belirliyoruz? Mesela bizim insan olarak kısa dönemli, orta dönemli, uzun dönemli hedeflerimiz var. Mesela hükümetler değişsede değişmeyen devlet politikaları var. Kıbrıs meselesi gibi. Bu motivastonlar hedeflerimizle ilgili. Long termler daha çok planlanmayan, daha değişken, rüyalarla hayallerle olan.
Burda 3 tane kavram devletin dış politikasını belirleyicilikte çok önemli: Ulusal Güvenlik, Ulusal Çıkar, Ulusal rol.
The next one is the neoliberal institutionalism (neoliberal kurumsalcılık).
They argue that the change in regime, bureaucrati system or the other the international actors will change the FP.
Neoliberal instutionalist emphasize the concept of interdependency. Interdependence between the states. The key element the Foreign policy is the cooperation.
Interdependence youhave to make a cooperation with the other actors so you depended the other.
Dış politikada karşılıklı bağımlılıktan dolayı iş birliğine yönelirsiniz diyor.
They say that the internal elements are determinance of Foreign policy.
While the same time they except the affect of the systemic jeopolitical cycle in the FP process. So they argue that the both the domestic units under the states and the İnt. system affect the process of FP.
Not just the internal element, not just the international system. All of them affect.
Like the realist or the like the classical liberalist, neo liberal institutionalist that acknowledge the states like the realist are the main actors in international system. They except the idea the state is the main actor in int sytstem like the realist and they except the structure of the system. International system is anarchic. They think that states calculate net profits or rational actors. But interdependency forces them to cooperate (işbirliği yapmaya zorlar)
Neorealists argues that the anarhic international system forces the states to cooperate. Neoliberal instutionalist interdependence this sutitation between actors forces them the cooperate
Klasik realistler sistem anarşik olduğu için işbirliği olmaz diyor. Neorealistler sistemin belirleyiciliğini ortaya koyup bu sistemin dış politikayı etkilediğini söylüyor. Liberaller U.a sistem anarşiktir ama bu anarşi işbirliğini zorlar diyor. Neoliberaller bu işbirliğini zorlayan şey bizim karşılıklı bağımlılığımızdır diyor.
In addition to neoliberal instutionalist give greek importance to the international law and international organizations.
When we look at the marxism, marxisim has the little in FP because according to approach it is not possible to talk about the existence the state in a place where class conflict exist.
For this reason, according to marxist the state is an executive tool of the class that dominate itself. In that case, there will not be a common understanding that reflect wishes of the general public in the foreign policy. It means the for the marxist the FP is not valued for the all compenent of the state. It is valued for just dominant class under the state. The state represent for the just dominal class in the states.
(There is a class strugle. Belli sınıflar var. One of them has the dominant position in the state. Actually the FP is valued for the is represent for the this dominant class. Not to general compenent of the state.
Because of that we can talk about the just one dominant class of the state. Beacue of that the marxism has a little interest in FP of a state.
Foreign Policy planned by government will not reflect the wishes the interests of the general public.
On the contrary, these FP choices will unable dominated social class in the state. Because the dominant class under the state is to maintain their current hegemonic position. For this reason, marxism does not attach, does not give the importance to the existence of state and the FP of this type of state.
Marxism has little interest in FP
Class conflict in the state
a dominant class
FP is valid (geçerli) for just a dominant class.
Because of that marxism doesnt give great -importance on the FP among the states. There is a Perspective of the marxism for the FP. Marxism focus on the FP from the theory of dependence. Theory of depence that the rights from marxism is corcern with the FP. We focus on the Galton and the Wallerstein perspectives.
Wallerstein at blaim the relation between the center states and the peripheral states. Peripheral countries defined as the 3 group countries or the development countries at means these types of countries have no capacity. They are poor and the unstable states.
Centrel countries are the develop peripheral countries.
According to this opinion, it is not possible for (peripheral) countries depending on centeral states to pursue a realistic FP independently. They can not deterren the territory.
Because they have (lek) of capacities because of thet can not fallow persue a independent FP. Territory states. Foreign Policy of the Peripheral countries can be deterren by the priotiry
Yani merkez çevre ülkelerin arasında bir ilişki vardır. Ve de çevre ülkelerin dış politikasını kendi önceliklerine göre kendi çıkarlarına göre formule edebilirken çevre ülkeler bunu gerçekleştirecek kapasiteye sahip değiller. Bunu merkez ülkelerin önceliklerine uygun olarak yapmalılar.
The last theory is the Constructivism. Constructivism began to occupy the agenda for the 1980. Constructivism defines thoughts and norms as the basic factors of FP.
Constructivism claims that national and international norms or the identities define the interest of the states, defines the priotiries of the state. Fundamental right, freedom and behaivor patterns. Socialazation and the learning process constitutide the identity and priorities of a states. This is the building process. Socially construction processs. First of all, The identity should be build, should be constract. The social constructed identity deterren the priorities and interest of the state. The identity and the priorities that constructed socially can change from time to time.
The change in the identity and the priority can change in FP of a state. For the constructivists, the world consist of the interaction between the actor and its environment. Social rules and the identity shape the international sytem and the FP.
So they focus on the existence of the rules, priorities, identities, norms.
They evaluate (değerlendirmek) in int system from the social constracted rules. So the mainting the starting point is to determine your priority and your interests. Actually, the determining interest and the determining identity process are valued for the all IR theories. But the metodhology is the different from the constructivist perspective. In order to create the priority or interest.
You have to construct your identity. You can construct your identity, internals of your relations between you and your environment. Process is build by social construct and the social constereced rules and identities shape the priorities.
İdentity can change. after changing the priorities you can chane your identity.
İdentity can be defined by norms, believes, historical backgrounds. All of them affects pritorites identity.
Kimlik sosyal olarak inşa edilen bir şey. Sosyal olarak inşa edilen bu kimlik devletin dış politikasını belirliyor. Yani bu sosyal olarak inşa edilen kimlik uluslar arası sistemi belirliyor.