How Can We formulate Foreing Policy making?
At the post cold war era the types of actors started to change like NGO’s, Companies, İos, Public opinion, media all of them started to effect foreign policy formulation states.
But we simply define foreign policy as one actors relation with the other actors.
In order the understand the process of the foreign policy making we focus on the 3 levels in international system;
1- Individual level
2- State level
3- İnternational level
In order the understand the process of formulation foreign policy we have to understand the relations or links among 3 levels.
The foreing policy analysis focuses on the process. this is interested in the resoult.
The foreing policy analysis is interested in why and how turkey took operation desicion.
There are 3 main aim of the foreign policy analysis;
1- To reach information about why or how stated take desicion on foreign policy formulate the process. (get to information)
2- İs to create a middle range teory (framework) in order to build a such a theory or framework recurrent actions (tekrarlanan davranışlar) or recurrent behavior should be determined of the state
as a resoult of the determinations process main argument should be determent or created.
3- Comperative foreign policy it focuses on the resoults. we talk about the resoult of the process. Outputs)
The main aim of the foreign policy analysis can be summerize as determind factors affecting states foreign policy formulating process.
Foreign policy analysis try to for a guess states future behaviors in foreign policy.
It compare the decisions. They analysis results of the foreign policy actions.
For example if you determine causes of war you can prevent.
Historical Evoluation of the Foreign policy studies
We can catagorize it into 4 part;
1- 1950–1973: First generation studies of foreign policy studies.
3 basic scholars in that term
the root crucial article or the studies about foreign policy analysis.
1. Richard snyder: Desicion makind as an approach to study of international politic. He published the article 1954.
He focus on the necessary of decision making proces.
2. James Roshenav: Pre-Theories and theoies of foreign policy: he publised the article 1966
Was create the middle way theory. He argue that he suggested to make scientific and strategic systematic studies. you have to reach the generalisation in the behavior of the nation states. You have to collect re-current actions in historical perspective.
3. Harold and Margaret Sprout: Man- miliev relationship hypothesis in the context of international politics. He or she published it in 1956.
They was concentrated on the language man, individual and their environment. we live in the society. and society affairs our values. Environment directly affect leader’s chooses. They try to find determine the relations between individual his or her relations.
They argued that the foreign policy can be understood as the individual’s psychological situations.
This studies form and shape the study of international foreign policy analysis in that period.
2- 1974–1980: Second generation studies: All Time The international system changing. Studies affected by changing in international system. The second Generation studies of foreign policy we’re interested in the process of making foreign policy concentrating on the subheading;
a- Studies on group desicion making: the group characteristics in formulation of foreign policy. Not just leader or int. System
b- analogous: (benzer) you have to find same cases from the historical perspective in order the fight the generalization of nations states. (using historical examples) and they compared the results
c- organizational and brokratic decision making model: examine the impact of organizational structure and bureaucratic structure of the state.
3- 1980–1993:Scholars of foreign policy analysis. They added some new factors lika a psychological and sociological factors. The change depends on the change in
a- they add the psychological factors are effect process of the foreign policy formulation
b- the brain of the decision-makers are not black or white page. Human brains have affected by values,life experience, beliefs
c- there is a crucial concept about the foreign policy. Robert Putnam’s 2 level game theory is about the states’ domestic and international level. Bureucrats and leaders goes to International level and negotiate with eachother then an agreement is signed but that is not enough. in order to apply to international law, the state must approve it.
4- 1993-today: studies focuses on the contemporary (çağdaş) foreign policy analysis.
Studies made in that period can be summarized under the three subcategories:
a- about the searching for a theory development of decision making process.
b- about the searching for the theory based on the leader characteristics.
c- searching for a theory development about the culture, identity and social groups.
Studies on foreign policy analysis actually have been devoloping.